RABAC

AN ADVANCED WASTEWATER TREATMENT SOLUTION

Bacillus Bacteria

WE USE BACILLUS BACTERIA SPP. PRODUCING ANNOMOX PROCESS WITH 50% LESS ENERGY

  • Found in natural air, water and soil
  • Used to produce antibiotics over 100 years
  • Commonly used in Korea and Japan for fermented food (e.g., kimchi, miso soybean paste)
  • 6 identified bacilli groups and many other unidentified type
    • B. subtilis,
    • B. amyloliquefaciens,
    • B. licheniformis,
    • B. vallismortis,
    • B. megaterium
  • Probiotics
  • Antibiotics
  • Biological Pesticides

WE USE ROTATING BIOREACTOR WITH HIGHLY RETICULATED FIBER MESH FOR BACILLUS SEEDING

  • High density retiform disc of Polyvinylidene Chloride with 40 mm thickness
  • Very high treatment capacity per unit disc area due to very high thickness of biomass
  • Total mesh surface area (Model 30SP): 19,000 sq. ft.
  • Low power consumption (light and water resistance)
  • Lifetime of the equipment is semi-permanent

RABAC (Rotating Activated BAcillus Contactor) U.S. Patent No. 7452469

RABAC SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM

RABAC CAN HANDLE HIGH FLUCTUATIONS IN BOD LOADINGS AND FLOW RATES

  • RABAC can have aerobic environment because water and air can flow inside of the contactor, so biomass concentration is very high (10,000 ~30,000mg/l)
  • Effective Biomass concentration in BRB
    • 106~108/ml for BOD 100 ~2,000 mg/l
    • 107~109/ml for BOD 2,000 ~5,000 mg/l
    • 109~1012/ml for BOD over 5,000 mg/l

BACILLUS SPP. CAN SURVIVE IN EXTREME CONDITIONS (LOW TEMPERATURE, LOW DO,HIGH SALT, HIGH ACID LEVELS)

  • When stressed, Bacillus spp. produces endospores that can survive under dire conditions
  • Bacillus spp. grow when the environment is restored to normal condition
  • RABAC provides mechanism to create right conditions for both efficient treatment and resilience to minimize reseeding needs

EXCELLENT NUTRIENTS REMOVAL EFFICIENCY

T-N Removal

Some Bacillus spp. such as B. licheniformis, B. fastiiosus and B. Pasterurill utilize urea, purine and ammonium as its source of nitrogen and energy nutrients

Nitrogen can be directly ingested by the bacillus spp.

T-P Removal

When Disolved Oxygen (DO) level is around 0.5mg/l, uptake of Phosphorus by microbes is maximized.

Since RABAC process maintains DO level to be 0.5 mg/l on average, phosphorus can be removed efficiently

NO DEODORIZATION FACILITY NEEDED

Odor material ChemicalFormula IndustrialDischarging Standard Other Discharing StandardRemarks
Ammonia NH3 Under 2 Under 1 RABAC can treat odor causing influents without any addtional facilities
Methyl Mercaptan CH3SH Under 0.004 Under 0.002
Hydrogen Sulfide H3S Under 0.06 Under 0.02
Dimethyl Sulfide (CH3)2S Under 0.05 Under 0.01
Dimethyl Disulfide (CH3)2S2 Under 0.03 Under 0.009
Trimethylamine (CH3)3N Under 0.02 Under 0.005
Acetaldehyde CH3CHO Under 0.1 Under 005

NO DISINFECTION FACILITY NEEDED

Bacillus spp. endospores produce antibiotics which kill pathogens and E-coli or depress the growth of pathogens

Bacitracin, Bacilibactia, Fengycin, Gramicidin S, Lichenysin D, Lipoteichoic acid, Mycosubtilin, Surfactin, Tyrocidine A

Bacillus endospores produce microbic agricultural pesticides that kill harmful insects

B. Popillae, B. thuringenis, B. lentimorbus, B.sphaericus
No mosquitos and flies can live in RABAC sludge

Bacillus spp. is anti-fungal and RABAC sludge can be used for agricultural crops for that purpose

LOW CAPEX, LOW OPEX, LESS FOOTPRINT

- Low construction cost due to no sedimentation facility, no disinfection and no deodorization facility are required.
- Low DO level saves electricity bills
- The simple process makes maintenance easy.
- The bio contactor last semi-permanently
- The RABAC unit treats a half of pollutants and BRB treats the other half of the pollutants, so we use less footprint (HRT < 6 hrs)

SLUDGE USED AS ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

- Sludge production is 20% less compared to the conventional technologies
- Sludge contains enough nitrogen and phosphorus, so adding potassium would make the sludge perfect organic fertilizers
- In Korea and Japan, the organic fertilizers distribute to farmers for free
- Sludges can cure the odor problem at landfills

SCALABILITY

- RABAC System is modularized
- One train of RABAC system consists of RABAC Unit, BRB and Sedimentation Basin.
- One RABAC train can treat up to 1.4 MGD at 250 BOD municipal sewage equivalent (about 15,000 to 20,000 in population)
- As the flow rate grows, additional RABAC trains can be added as needed
- RABAC is particularly suited for retrofitting activated sludge systems prevalent in municipal sewage systems in the U.S.

RABAC’S PERFORMANCE: COMPLY WITH STRINGENT DISCHARGE STANDARDS

Item Sewage Dairy Manure Food Processing Wastewater Lechate
  In Out In Out In Out In Out
BOD 128.6 5.2 26,022 12 2,901 4.4 2,707 32
COD 89.1 7.4 7,496 169 9,287 44.5 6,126 202
SS 142.9 3.7 24,370 16 3,801 5.1 790 6
T-N 32.4 7.4 4,281 39 324 6.3 1,560 17
T-P 2.9 0.5 724 1.3 46 0.7 26 0.8
Source: Eco-Star Project Award, Ministry of Environment of Korea, based on rigorous and extensive 4-year test results (2003-2007).

COMPARISON WITH MAINSTREAM METHODS

PARAMETER RABAC SYSTEM ACTIVATED SLUDGE METHOD A2/O (BNR METHOD)
Microbes Bacillus spp. Aerobic Bacteria Anaerobic/Aerobic
Bacteria;
Nitro Bacteria
Removal
Efficiency
(%)
BOD 96~ 99%
T-N : 80 ∼95%
T-P : 75 ∼90%
BOD : OVER 90%
T-N : 20 ∼30%
T-P : 10 ∼20%
BOD : OVER 90%
T-N : 60 ∼75%
T-P : 50 ∼70%
Nitrogen Removal Direct uptake of Nitrogen, Nitrite and Nitrate (Bacillus spp. ) Autotrophic Nitrification / Heterotrophic Denitrification Autotrophic Nitrification / Heterotrophic Denitrification
Energy Needs 1 1.5 1.3

RABAC Commercial Applications

Food Processing

Municipal Sewage

APPLICATION HISTORY

# Name of Project Sector Capacity Period Location Remark
cubic meter/day gal/day
1 Lotte Confectionery Industrial 600 158,400 ’99.6 ∼ Pyongtaek City Operational
2 Lotte Ham & Milk Industrial 1,300 343,200 ’00.3 ∼ Gimcheon City Operational
3 Lotte Freshdelica Industrial 200 52,800 ’00.6 ∼ Yongin City Operational
4 Lotte Chilsung Industrial 1,500 396,000 ’01.2 ∼ Ansung City Operational
5 Korea Maritime University Municipal/Sewage 900 237,600 ’01.9 ∼ Busan Metropolitan Operational
6 Yongin Night Soil & Livestock Municipal/Sewage 90 23,760 ’05.6 ∼ Yongin City Operational
7 Hankuk Papers Industrial 10 2,640 ’99.4 ∼ ’99.7 Onsan City Pilot
8 Daehan Papers Industrial 20 5,280 ’99.10 ∼ ’99.12 Chengwon Gun Pilot
9 Iksan Livestock Agricultural 5 1,320 ’99.5 ∼ ’99.7 Iksan City Pilot
10 Busan Umgung Night Soil & Septic Municipal/Sewage 10 2,640 ’00.4 ∼ ’00.10 Busan Metropolitan Pilot
11 Heaundae Municipal/Sewage 30 7,920 ’99.11 ∼ ’01.3 Busan Metropolitan Pilot
12 Sanggok Leachate Leachate/Landfill 5 1,320 ’00.4 ∼ ’01.3 Busan Metropolitan Pilot
13 Sanggok Leachate Leachate/Landfill 2,000 528,000 ’01.9 ∼ Busan Metropolitan Operational
14 Japan Night Soil & Septic Municipal/Sewage 1,300 343,200 ’01.10 ∼ Japan Operational
15 Kunmming City Municipal/Sewage 5,000 1,320,000 ’01.9 ∼ China Design
16 Lotte Samkang Industrial 1,800 475,200 ’01.6 ∼ Seoul Metropolitan Operational
17 Busan GijangGun Municipal/Sewage 210 55,440 ’’02.7 ∼ Busan Metropolitan Operational
18 Busan Sansung Municipal/Sewage 480 126,720 ’’01.9 ∼ Busan Metropolitan Operational
19 Lotte Freshdelica Industrial 150 39,600 ’02.7 ∼ Gwangju City Operational
20 Lotte Freshdelica Industrial 200 52,800 ’02.7 ∼ Busan Metropolitan Operational
21 Busan House of Children Municipal/Sewage 120 31,680 ’’02.3 ∼ Busan Metropolitan Operational
22 Busan Haguen Municipal/Sewage 150 39,600 ’01.12 ∼ Busan Metropolitan Operational
23 Pyongtaek City Tonbok Municipal/Sewage 45,000 11,880,000 ’01.12 ∼ Pyongtaek City Operational
24 Pyongtaek City Jangdang Municipal/Sewage 25,000 6,600,000 ’01.12 ∼ Pyongtaek City Operational
25 Pyongtaek City Anjung Municipal/Sewage 20,000 5,280,000 ’’01.12 ∼ Pyongtaek City Operational
26 Ministry of Environment Municipal/Sewage 50 13,200 ’01.12 ∼ Seoul Metropolitan Operational
27 Pyongtaek City Municipal/Sewage 300 79,200 ’02.05 ∼03.05 Pyongtaek City Pilot
28 Euiryong City Livestock Agricultural 130 34,320 ’05.02 ∼ Euiryong City Operational
29 Busan Umgung Night Soil & Septic Municipal/Sewage 3,500 924,000 ’05.02 ∼ Busan Metropolitan Operational